[Editor's note: Polymers are long-chain molecules responsible for allowing an oil to be a multi-viscosity (e.g., 10w40, 20w50, etc.) Think of polymer molecules as coiled springs, as the engine oil warms up, the coils begin to unwind, creating a longer, straighter molecule. This longer molecule offers more resistance to flow (through the fluid.) Resistance to flow is the definition of viscosity.]
Entrapped air reduces the surface tension of oil, creating a less-than-favourable condition. When aerated oil passes through loaded areas of the engine/transmission, the bubbles can collapse and allow the metal surfaces to contact each other. Higher operating speeds and gear systems in motorcycles increase the need for good foam control.
While oil cannot prevent the introduction of air, it can control foaming though the use of anti-foam additives. Higher RPM motorcycle engines require more advanced chemistry.
Engine Temperature - Many motorcycles are air-cooled or use a combination air/oil design, others are water-cooled. Most all motorcycles operate with higher oil temperatures. A typical 4-stroke MX bike operates at a constant oil temperature of 230°F to 300°F+ compared to typical automotive oil temps of 190°F.
Elevated operating temperatures promote oxidation and cause an oil to thicken, impeding its flow and promoting deposit formation. Heat can destroy lubricants. When oil is heated the lighter fractions in the oil volatize off (evaporate.) This leads to increased oil consumption, higher emissions and increased oil viscosity.
Higher operating temperatures create a more volatile environment for your oil. Many motorcycles hold 1000mL or less of oil in the engine!
High Compression - Motorcycles tend to operate with higher engine compression ratios than automobiles. Higher compression ratios place additional stress on engine components and increase engine operating temperatures. Elevated operating temperatures also promote thermal degradation of the oil, reducing its life expectancy and increasing the formation of internal engine deposits.
Maxima addresses this in 2 ways: 1) The use of superior base oils and 2) Through chemistry (additive technology.) In simplistic terms, engine oils can be broken down into 3 groups: Base oil, additives and polymer systems.
In this area we're discussing base oil choice (which type and why?) and additive chemistry.
When choosing an oil there are obvious choices: petroleum, synthetic blend or fully synthetic. There are also not-so-obvious choices like ester synthetic or Group III type synthetic or if petroleum based, is it Group I or Group II petroleum oil? Each of these base oils offers different degrees of protection through lubricity and longevity.
For motorcycles, operating under higher stresses and temperatures, you want an oil that's going to hold up to the abuse. You need an oil that is thermally and oxidatively stable.
Unfortunately for most consumers, you don't know exactly what you're getting. Maxima blends with only Group II and Group II+ petroleum base oils (a more highly refined base stock when compared to Group I) and all of our synthetic or synthetic blend oils are ester based.
Ester synthetics are recognized as the strongest, cleanest base stocks available. Esters offer more protection against thermal breakdown, they offer the highest load carrying capability by bonding to the metal surfaces in your engine/transmission and because they are polar in nature, esters are the cleanest base stocks that can be employed in a formula.
We're proud to use ester synthetics. With just one look at our labels you know what you're getting. Maxima says what it uses right on the bottle because we use the best!
Advanced additives are also used to control the degradation of an oil, as well as, to control combustion by-products. Antioxidants are used to prolong oil life. Detergents and dispersant's are blended in to control the formation of deposits and to help keep debris in suspension, allowing them to be filtered out of the oil.
An oil's detergent & dispersant package is very important to the life of the engine and should not be overlooked. A well balanced formula, like Maxima, will address both high and low operating temperatures.
Frequency of Use - Motorcycles are typically used less frequently than automobiles. Whereas automobiles are used on a daily basis, a motorcycle is used periodically and in many cases seasonal.
These extended periods of inactivity place additional stress on motorcycle oils. Critical concerns are rust & corrosion protection and acid neutralisation.
Maxima has learned a tremendous amount in this area due to working with castor based 2-cycle oils. Castor is very particular on what it will work with and when left untreated, offers little protection in the way of rust & corrosion. To further complicate the rust & corrosion issue is the fact that our Castor 927 is the #1 choice for PWC racing and is used extensively in wet operating environments.
The knowledge we gained from this has been handed down into all of our chemistries and we feel we have one of the most advanced inhibitor packages on the market. Our oils protect long after your riding stops.
Horsepower (HP) - Motorcycle engines produce nearly twice the horsepower per cubic inch of displacement than automobile engines. This exposes the oil to higher temperatures and stress. Remember, HP is energy and this energy comes to the motor in the form of a violent explosion (combustion.)
This immense energy is then buffered in the clutch before it's transferred to the transmission and eventually the rear wheel. Can oils produce horsepower and torque? A high quality, performance oil can and Maxima does. One of our claims is improved performance and we back it up.
Maxima has taken the 4-stroke revolution to heart and has poured in tremendous amounts of hours into the development of what we think are the finest 4-stroke oils available on the market today.
By working hand-in-hand with factory race teams, Maxima produces true championship winning formula's and offers them to the end consumer.
No gimmicks, no quick fixes, no hype - only proven, championship winning formula's.
In 2005, Maxima won more AMA championships than all of our competitors combined. 7 titles in SX and MX, numerous titles in off-road including Hare & Hound, the hotly contested 600 Supersport title - the list goes on and on.
There's a reason why more pro racers and tuners like Mitch Payton, Kawasaki and Suzuki all choose Maxima. Proven performance, power and protection - overkill.
It's not just our slogan its our mission.
M/C oil: All for One & One for All - In automotive applications, engine oils are required to lubricate only the engine. The transmission has its own oil bath and the clutch generally operates in its own environment with a separate fluid.
This is not so in your motorcycle. Many motorcycles have a common sump supplying oil to the engine, transmission and wet clutch. In such cases, the oil is required to meet the needs of both the engine and the transmission gears and also to work with the clutch, not against it.
Maxima blends to API SL / JASO MA2 specifications giving you assurance that our oils will work in your wet clutch systems. From our M/C specific petroleum based oils to our 100% ester-based synthetics - Maxima will protect your engine and transmission and offers total compatibility with your clutch.
Remember, all Maxima does is formulate for the Powersports industry, so we know that all of the oils we produce will most likely be used in wet clutch applications. We also understand the unique demands placed on our oils by a motorcycle's transmission.
Tech Summary - It's apparent that motorcycle applications place a different set of requirements on lubricating oils. Motorcycle oils, therefore, must be formulated to address this unique set of high stress conditions.
A lubricant is required to perform a variety of tasks. It must lubricate, cool, clean and protect all moving and stationary parts. In a motorcycle, all of these areas are elevated and pose additional stresses on the oil.
CLUTCH - It has also been noted that motorcycle oils must be multi-functional, meeting the needs of both the engine and transmission. An additional concern is in those applications in which the clutch is immersed in the oil occupying the transmission. A clutch is designed to engage using friction plates.
A clutch oil is used to cool the clutch, remove the contaminants and to provide lubrication. Concern arises over the impact the oil may have on the operation of the clutch. How an oil performs in a wet-clutch application is, in part, a function of its additive system.
An oil should be free of additives such as friction modifiers that can dramatically alter the dynamic and static frictional properties of the clutch and result in clutch plate slippage.
PROTECTION - Though viscosity is the most critical variable in terms of wear protection (providing a cushion and physically separating two surfaces), it does have limitations. Component loading can exceed the load carrying ability of the oil. When that occurs, partial or full contact results between components and wear will occur.
Chemical additives are added to the oil to react on the surface as the last line of defence to control wear in these conditions. These additives have an attraction to the metal surface and create a sacrificial coating on engine parts. If contact occurs the additive coating takes the abuse to minimise component wear.
Through the use of additive technology and viscosity retention, component wear is minimised. The greatest need for both is in the motorcycle transmission. High sliding pressures, shock loading and the shearing forces applied by the gears demand a great deal from a lubricant.
Motorcycle applications present a unique situation because most motorcycles share a common sump between the engine and transmission. The same oil lubricates both assemblies, yet engines place different demands on the oil than transmissions do.
PERFORMANCE - is a topic that we've only touched on. Can an oil actually produce horsepower and torque? Yes. Remember earlier....Horsepower.
Most of us ride because we enjoy the M/C lifestyle and get a thrill from the power that our motorcycles produce. A good oil can bring an engine to life. Maxima blends its products to perform, both on and offroad. Our name says racing, but whether youre racing or cruising, the technology that we employ in our oils benefits your motorcycle and your wallet.
Protection - At What Cost? When making a purchase, the initial price of a product is a primary concern, however it doesn't reflect the actual cost of using the product. Less expensive oils may save money up front, but can cost more in the end if they compromise protection. The additional benefits offered by a performance based oil can offset the difference in price.
For example, oils that last longer cost less over time and oils that offer superior anti-wear and extreme pressure protection increase equipment life, reducing the need for expensive repairs. High quality motorcycle specific oil is an inexpensive way to protect an expensive investment.
*** WHY A MOTORCYCLE SPECIFIC OIL? ***
Motorcycles need a strong BASE (TBN) to control Sulfuric Acid formed from water (condensation) reacting with the oil (sulfur.) Base neutralises these acids before damage can occur
Motorcycles need superior ANTI-FOAM agents to control excessive foaming caused by higher RPMs, more internal moving parts in the crankcase (integrated transmissions) and aeration of the oil caused by the lean factor. Motorcycles lean into turns causing the clutch basket and gears to dip into the oil
Motorcycles need effective DETERGENTS to keep the engine/transmission and clutch clean and free of deposits, dirt and clutch material
Motorcycles need strong DISPERSANT'S to suspend and prevent the build-up of debris (clutch dust & combustion by-products), allowing it to be filtered out
Motorcycles need shear stable POLYMERS to prevent mechanical shearing (thinning of the oil) allowing for increased load carrying capability (protecting highly loaded areas engine/transmission) and the ability to stay-in-grade longer
Motorcycles need high-quality base oil (ESTER synthetics) to improve flow, minimise oil consumption, increase performance and extend oil & equipment life.
*** WHY MAXIMA RACING OILS? ***
Pure Base Oil - Highly Refined Petroleum Oil
Fewer Engine Deposits
Increased Oil Flow
Increased Oil Life
Ester-based Synthetics - Tailor-Made Lubricants
True Synthetic Oil
Increased Film Strength
Superior Engine Cleanliness
Lower Coefficient of Friction
Very Shear Stable Polymer System
More Durable Oil
Improved Load Carrying Capacity
Better Ability to Stay-In-Grade (e.g., 10w40)
Less Shearing of Oil in Transmission
Industry Leading Amount or Anti-wear and Extreme Pressure Agents
More "Safety Net" Additives for Increased Protection & Longevity
Low Additive Depletion Rate
Superior Engine Cleanliness
Formulated to exceed API SL / JASO-MA2 specifications
More Power, More Performance, More Protection
Australian Exclusive Distributor:
Steve Cramer Products
Ph 03 9587 1466
Fx 03 9587 2018